PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS ALAKJA A Past Perfect Continuous-nak két segédigéje van: HAD – ez a perfect szemléletet segít kifejezni BEEN – ez a folyamatosságot segít kifejezni Ezt használjuk kijelentő, állító mondatokban és kérdezéskor, valamint tagadáskor is! Ehhez kapcsolódik az adott ige –ING-es alakja. Tehát: ● KIJELENTŐ, ÁLLÍTÓ (NEM TAGADÓ) MONDATBAN: HAD BEEN + az ige ING-es alakja pl. The boss had been waiting for an hour by the time their Joe arrived. The boss wanted to know if Joe had been sleeping so long. (A főnök egy órája várt, mire Joe megérkezett. A főnök tudni akarta, hogy Joe ilyen sokáig aludt-e.) ÖSSZEVONÁS: Az had segédige az alannyal összevonható. pl. He had been waiting for an hour. = He’d been washing his teeth for an hour. ● TAGADÁS: ritka, ha mégis előfordul, a HAD segédige után kerül a „not” tagadószó HAD + NOT + BEEN + az ige ING-es alakja pl. Joe said that he had not been sleeping for so long. (Joe azt mondta, hogy nem aludt ilyen sokáig) ÖSSZEVONÁS: Az had segédige a „not” tagadószóval összevonható: pl. He had not been sleeping so long. = He hadn’t been sleeping so long. ● KÉRDEZÉS: csak a HAD segédige kerül az alany elé: HAD + ALANY + BEEN + az ige ING-es ALAKJA pl. What had he been doing for so long? Had he been washing his teeth? (Mit csinált ilyen sokáig? Fogat mosott?)
HASZNÁLATA EGY MÁSIK MÚLTBELI ESEMÉNY VAGY IDŐPONT ELŐTT ELKEZDŐDÖTT, ÉS MÉG AKKOR IS TARTÓ CSELEKVÉS pl. They had been living there for 10 years when the neighbour smiled at them. ↓ ↓ (hamarabb kezdődött, (későbbi esemény) és még folyamatban volt) (Már 10 éve ott laktak, amikor a szomszéd rájuk mosolygott.) Jellemzően használható időhatározók: ● Az esemény lefolyásának időtartamát vagy kezdőpontját jelölő elöljárószók since… (valamilyen időpont óta) pl. I had been living there since Friday when he arrived. (Péntek óta ott laktam, amikor megérkezett.) for… (valamennyi ideje, valamilyen időhossz óta) pl. They had been living together for 10 years when they maried. (10 éve éltek együtt, amikor összeházasodtak.) ● Használhatók az előidejűségre utaló időhatározók is (l. Past Perfect Simple-nél! - (by, by the time, already, yet etc.)) pl. They had been living together for 10 years by the time they married. (10 éve éltek együtt, amikor összeházasodtak.) A Past Perfect Simple és a Past Perfect Continuous közötti különbség: PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
● hansúlyozza, hogy a cselekvés hamarabb ● hangsúlyozza, hogy egy cselekvés hamarabb kezdődött, és már befejeződött, mielőtt kezdődött, és még folyamatban volt, amikor egy valamilyen másik esemény bekövetkezett a másik esemény bekövetkezett a múltban múltban ↔ They had eaten my cake by the time I got home. (Megették a tortámat, mire hazaértem.)
They had been eating my cake for an hour by the time I got home. (Egy órája ették a tortámat, mire hazaértem.)
A Past Continuous (folyamatos múlt) és a Past Perfect Continuous közötti különbség: PAST CONTINUOUS
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
● csak az a fontos, hogy a cselekvés éppen folyt egy adott időpontban ↔ They were eating my cake when I got home. (Ették a tortámat, amikor hazaértem.)
● nem csak az a fontos, hogy a cselekvés éppen folyt egy adott időpontban, hanem az is, hogy mióta tartott már They had been eating my cake for an hour when I got home. (Egy órája ették a tortámat, amikor hazaértem.)
1) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous. 1. I __________________________ (wait) in the office for more than two hours when the Boss finally arrived. 2. They _______________________ (talk) for over an hour before the other members arrived. 3. ______________________________ (you/watch) the match when I telephoned you? 4. She _____________________ (work) for that company for three years when it went out of business. 5. How long ___________________________ (you/wait) for John before he finally arrived? 6. Mike was longing to sit down because he ____________________ (stand) all day at work. 7. What ______________________________ (you/do) yesterday at 8 p.m.? 8. David ____________________________ (teach) at the international school for more than a year before he left forF rance. 9. How long _____________________________ (you/study Italian before you moved there? 10. The footballers were tired because they ___________________ (play) for two hours. 11. Helen _____________________ (not/do) anything special when we arrived. 12. Sam put on a lot of weight because he _______________________ (eat) too much. 13. I _____________________ (have) lunch when he entered the restaurant. 14. Florence failed the final test because she ____________________ (not/revise) enough. 15. While I ______________________ (walk) home last Monday I saw a terrible car accident. 2) Use the exact form of the verbs in brackets. (Past Simple / Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple / Past Perfect Continuous) 1. He _______________(keep) looking at her, wondering where he ______________(see) her before. 2. He _______________(help) me as soon as he _______________(finish) his work.
3. She _______________(give) us the answer after she _______________(speak) to her husband. 4. When we _______________(arrive) at the station I _______________(try) to find a porter. 5. Stan _______________(say) good-bye to Dick as soon as he _______________(get) the money. 6. Joe _______________(let) them in after they _______________(knock) the door three times. 7. They _______________(leave) for school before I _______________(make) them some sandwiches. 8. Joe _______________(be) the gardener at the Lees’ before Dick _______________(come). 9. John _______________(not worry) as everything _______________(be) all right so far. 10. I _______________(have) no idea what _______________(happen). 11. When Mark _______________(turn) to say good-bye to them, they _______________(already go). 12. They _______________(be) tired and sleepy because they _______________(travel) all through the night. 13. Peter _______________(already drink) a lot when he _______________(come) to the party. 14. Before she _______________(present) her plans to me she _______________(work it out) thoroughly. 15. By the time I _______________(get up), the whole family _______________(leave) home. 16. After she _______________(write) the cheques she _______________(go) to the post office. 17. Before we _______________(visit) our parents we _______________(pop) in a flower shop to buy a bunch of roses for my mom. 18. Who _______________(take) the kids to the nursery the day before yesterday? 19. First I _______________(wash) all the curtains, then I _______________(clean) the windows. 20. My parents _______________(be) proud of me because I _______________(pass) all my exams. 21. Geoff _______________ (not see) his parents for fifteen years so he _______________ (feel) rather nervous at the airport. 3) Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Mire Ann befejezte a mosogatást, már mindenki aludt. Mielőtt Tom belépett a szobába, sokáig kopogtatott. Mire elaludtam, már félórája hegedült a szomszéd. Mire a nagybátyám megérkezett, már két órája esett az eső. Mennyi ideig álltál a mozi előtt, mielőtt a barátaid megérkeztek? Mit játszottak a gyerekek, mielőtt esni kezdett az eső?
had been waiting. had been talking Were you watching had been working had you been waiting had been standing were you doing had been teaching had you been studying had been playing wasn’t doing had been eating was having hadn’t been revising was walking
He kept looking at her, wondering where he had seen her before. He helped me as soon as he finished his work. She gave us the answer after she had spoken to her husband. When we arrived at the station I tried to find a porter. Stan said good-bye to Dick as soon as he got (/had got)the money. Joe let them in after they had knocked the door three times. They left for school before I had made them some sandwiches. Joe had been the gardener at the Lees’ before Dick came. John didn’t worry as everything had been all right so far. I had no idea what had happened. When Mark turned to say good-bye to them, they had already gone. They were tired and sleepy because they had been travelling all through the night. Peter had already drunk a lot when he came to the party. Before she presented her plans to me she had worked it out thoroughly. By the time I got up, the whole family had left home. After she had written the cheques she went to the post office. Before we visited our parents we had popped in a flower shop to buy a bunch of roses for my mom. Who took the kids to the nursery the day before yesterday? First I washed all the curtains, then I cleaned the windows. My parents were proud of me because I had passed all my exams. Geoff hadn’t seen his parents for fifteen years so he felt rather nervous at the airport.
3) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
By the time Ann finished washing up, everybody had been sleeping. Before Tom entered the room, he had been knocking for a long time. By the time I fell asleep, the neighbour had been playing the violin for half an hour. By the time my uncle arrived, it had been raining for two hours. How long had you been standing in front of the cinema before your friends arrived? What had the children been playing before it started to rain?